【HKDSE History歷史2016 DBQ Q.3 English Version】
(a) Infer one characteristic of the Red Guard in the Cultural Revolution. Support your answer with one clue from Source E. (2 marks)
The characteristic of the Red Guard is anti-the West.
In Source E, the senior staff said the Red Guard was so angry when he saw that he was drinking a coffee, which is a foreign drink. He was also very angry when he saw there were many imported foreign things in the firm.
(b) What can you conclude from Source F about the Shenzhen government’s attitude towards the entry of McDonald’s into China? Explain your answer with reference to Source F. (3 marks)
Shenzhen government was supportive to the entry of McDonald’s into China.
In Source F, the Shenzhen Deputy Mayor attended the opening ceremony congratulated McDonald’s in the ceremony on behalf of the government. It indicates that the Shenzhen government supported the entry of McDonald’s so much and was looking forward to further cooperating with McDonalds’s later.
(c) Do you agree that the Reform and Opening-up policy of China after 1978 transformed China? Explain your answer with reference to Sources E and F and using your knowledge of China’s development up to 2000. (8 marks)
To a large extent I agree that the Reform and Opening-Up policy of China transformed China in 1978.
In cultural aspect, By Source E, the Red Guards were anti-foreign. They were very angry when they saw the foreign imported goods and doubted whether the staff is Chinese. It reflected that the most of people before 1978 hated foreign countries and their products so much.
By Source F, however, the people in China were in favour of the western foods. The Shenzhen Deputy Mayor attended the opening ceremony of McDonalds in 1990. Some Shenzhen citizens even have eaten the McDonalds’ foods that McDonalds have prepared for the consumption within the first three hours. It reflected that the people loved the foreign foods after 1978, unlike before 1978.
From my own knowledge, Deng adopted the Reform and Opening-up policy which attracted the foreign investments in China and therefore improved the foreign product’s image in China. Therefore, in cultural aspect, Reform and Opening-up policy could transform China.
In economic aspect, From my own knowledge, before 1978, China implemented ‘Public ownership economic system’ and planned economy. For example, when Mao suggested ‘Taking steel production as the key link’, most of the people, including doctors, conducted large-scale steel refinement by using backyard furnaces.
However, the economic reforms after 1978 was totally different from before 1978.
It changes from a planned economy to a free economy. For example, Deng implemented ‘household responsibility system’ and gave a certain degree of independence to the state-owned enterprises. The peasants could remain the rest of crops and the enterprises could remain the profit after tax.
In educational aspect, Many students lost the chance of going school since they dropped study and become Red Guard during Cultural Revolutions. Moreover, many intellectuals were regarded as ‘ghost’ and were sent to rural areas. Educational development was not emphasized before 1978.
However, in order to provide more talents for the implementation of economic reform. Deng changed to implement educational reforms and emphasize talents. For example, he built many schools and universities and invited world-wide talents to cultivate the next generation to improve the educational level for economic reforms.
In political aspect, from my own knowledge, Mao would try all means to suppress the people with objection such as ‘Three-anti’, ‘Five-anti’ and Cultural Revolution which was anti-capitalist roaders.
The situation was the same after 1978. Deng would still try all means to suppress the people with objection. For example, he suppressed the big-scale student movement Tiananmen Square protests in 1989 and killed many students.
Apart from political aspect, Reform and Opening-up policy could transform China in different aspects including cultural, economic and educational.
Therefore, to a large extent I agree that the Reform and Opening-Up policy of China transformed China in 1978.